1 Introduction to Machinery Principles 1

  • 1.1 Electric Machines, Transformers, and Daily Life 1
  • 1.2 A Note on Units 2
  • 1.3 Rotational Motion, Newton's Law, and Power Relationships 2
  • 1.4 The Magnetic Field 7
  • 1.5 Faraday's Law-Induced Voltage from a Time-Changing Magnetic Field 28
  • 1.6 Production of Induced Force on a Wire 31
  • 1.7 Induced Voltage on a Conductor Moving in a Magnetic Field 32
  • 1.8 The Linear DC Machine-A Simple Example 34
  • 1.9 Summary 46
2 Transformers 56
  • 2.1 Why Transformers Are Important to Modern Life 57
  • 2.2 Types and Construction of Transformers 57
  • 2.3 The Ideal Transformer 58
  • 2.4 Theory of Operation of Real Single-Phase Transformers 67
  • 2.5 The Equivalent Circuit of a Transformer 76
  • 2.6 The Per-Unit System of Measurements 83
  • 2.7 Transformer Voltage Regulation and Efficiency 90
  • 2.8 Transformer Taps and Voltage Regulation 99
  • 2.9 The Autotransformer 100
  • 2.10 Three-Phase Transformers 107
  • 2.11 Three-Phase Transformation Using Two Transformers 116
  • 2.12 Transformer Ratings and Related Problems 122
  • 2.13 Instrument Transformers 131
  • 2.14 Summary 132
3 Introduction to Power Electronics 140
  • 3.1 Power Electronic Components 140
  • 3.2 Basic Rectifier Circuits 150
  • 3.3 Pulse Circuits 158
  • 3.4 Voltage Variation by AC Phase Control 165
  • 3.5 DC-to-DC Power Control-Choppers 172
  • 3.6 Inverters 180
  • 3.7 Cycloconverters 196
  • 3.8 Harmonic Problems 202
  • 3.9 Summary 208
4 AC Machinery Fundamentals 215
  • 4.1 A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field 215
  • 4.2 The Rotating Magnetic Field 222
  • 4.3 Magnetomotive Force and Flux Distribution on AC Machines 231
  • 4.4 Induced Voltage in AC Machines 232
  • 4.5 Induced Torque in an AC Machine 240
  • 4.6 Winding Insulation in an AC Machine 243
  • 4.7 AC Machine Power Flows and Losses 244
  • 4.8 Voltage Regulation and Speed Regulation 246
  • 4.9 Summary 247
5 Synchronous Generators 250
  • 5.1 Synchronous Generator Construction 250
  • 5.2 The Speed of Rotation of a Synchronous Generator 254
  • 5.3 The Internal Generated Voltage of a Synchronous Generator 255
  • 5.4 The Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Generator 256
  • 5.5 The Phasor Diagram of a Synchronous Generator 260
  • 5.6 Power and Torque in Synchronous Generators 262
  • 5.7 Measuring Synchronous Generator Model Parameters 265
  • 5.8 The Synchronous Generator Operating Alone 271
  • 5.9 Parallel Operation of AC Generators 282
  • 5.10 Synchronous Generator Transients 299
  • 5.11 Synchronous Generator Ratings 308
  • 5.12 Summary 316
6 Synchronous Motors 324
  • 6.1 Basic Principles of Motor Operation 324
  • 6.2 Steady-State Synchronous Motor Operation 328
  • 6.3 Starting Synchronous Motors 342
  • 6.4 Synchronous Generators and Synchronous Motors 349
  • 6.5 Synchronous Motor Ratings 349
  • 6.6 Summary 350
7 Induction Motors 357
  • 7.1 Induction Motor Construction 357
  • 7.2 Basic Induction Motor Concepts 361
  • 7.3 The Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor 365
  • 7.4 Power and Torque in Induction Motors 371
  • 7.5 Induction Motor Torque-Speed Characteristics 378
  • 7.6 Variations in Induction Motor Torque-Speed Characteristics 393
  • 7.7 Trends in Induction Motor Design 402
  • 7.8 Starting Induction Motors 406
  • 7.9 Speed Control of Induction Motors 412
  • 7.10 Solid-State Induction Motor Drives 420
  • 7.11 Determining Circuit Model Parameters 428
  • 7.12 The Induction Generator 436
  • 7.13 Induction Motor Ratings 440
  • 7.14 Summary 441
8 DC Machinery Fundamentals 448
  • 8.1 A Simple Rotating Loop between Curved Pole Faces 448
  • 8.2 Commutation in a Simple Four-Loop DC Machine 459
  • 8.3 Commutation and Armature Construction in Real DC Machines 464
  • 8.4 Problems with Commutation in Real Machines 476
  • 8.5 The Internal Generated Voltage and Induced Torque Equations of Real DC Machines 488
  • 8.6 The Construction of DC Machines 492
  • 8.7 Power Flow and Losses in DC Machines 497
  • 8.8 Summary 499
9 DC Motors and Generators 506
  • 9.1 Introduction to DC Motors 506
  • 9.2 The Equivalent Circuit of a DC Motor 508
  • 9.3 The Magnetization Curve of a DC Machine 509
  • 9.4 Separately Excited and Shunt DC Motors 510
  • 9.5 The Permanent-Magnet DC Motor 532
  • 9.6 The Series DC Motor 535
  • 9.7 The Compounded DC Motor 541
  • 9.8 DC Motor Starters 546
  • 9.9 The Ward-Leonard System and Solid-State Speed Controllers 554
  • 9.10 DC Motor Efficiency Calculations 563
  • 9.11 Introduction to DC Generators 566
  • 9.12 The Separately Excited Generator 567
  • 9.13 The Shunt DC Generator 575
  • 9.14 The Series DC Generator 580
  • 9.15 The Cumulatively Compounded DC Generator 582
  • 9.16 The Differentially Compounded DC Generator 587
  • 9.17 Summary 590
10 Single-Phase and Special-Purpose Motors 604
  • 10.1 The Universal Motor 604
  • 10.2 Introduction to Single-Phase Induction Motors 606
  • 10.3 Starting Single-Phase Induction Motors 616
  • 10.4 Speed Control of Single-Phase Induction Motors 626
  • 10.5 The Circuit Model of a Single-Phase Induction Motor 628
  • 10.6 Other Types of Motors 635
  • 10.7 Summary 648
Appendix A Review of Three-Phase Circuits 652
  • A.1 Generation of Three-Phase Voltages and Currents 652
  • A.2 Voltages and Currents in a Three-Phase Circuit 655
  • A.3 Power Relationships in Three-Phase Circuits 659
  • A.4 Analysis of Balanced Three-Phase Systems 662
  • A.5 Using the Power Triangle 670
Appendix B Coil Pitch and Distributed Windings 674
  • B.1 The Effect of Coil Pitch on AC Machines 674
  • B.2 Distributed Windings in AC Machines 682
  • B.3 Summary 691
Appendix C Salient-Pole Theory of Synchronous Machines 694
  • C.1 Development of the Equivalent Circuit of a Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator 694
  • C.2 Torque and Power Equations of Salient-Pole Machine 701
Appendix D Tables of Constants and Conversion Factors 704
Index 705

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