Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Overview of Optical Fiber Communications

1.1 Basic Network Information Rates
1.2 The Evolution of Fiber Optic Systems
1.3 Elements of an Optical Fiber Transmission Link
1.4 Simulation and Modeling Tools
1.4.1 Characteristics of Simulation and Modeling Tools
1.4.2 Programming Languages
1.4.3 Sample Simulation and Modeling Tool
1.5 Use and Extension of the Book
1.5.1 References
1.5.2 Simulation Program on a CD-ROM
1.5.3 Photonics Laboratory
References

Chapter 2: Optical Fibers: Structures, Waveguiding, and Fabrication

2.1 The Nature of Light
2.1.1 Linear Polarization
2.1.2 Elliptical and Circular Polarization
2.1.3 The Quantum Nature of Light
2.2 Basic Optical Laws and Definitions
2.3 Optical Fiber Modes and Configurations
2.3.1 Fiber Types
2.3.2 Rays and Modes
2.3.3 Step-Index Fiber Structure
2.3.4 Ray Optics Representation
2.3.5 Wave Representation in a Dielectric Slab Waveguide
2.4 Mode Theory for Circular Waveguides
2.4.1 Overview of Modes
2.4.2 Summary of Key Modal Concepts
2.4.3 Maxwell's Equations
2.4.4 Waveguide Equations
2.4.5 Wave Equations for Step-Index Fibers
2.4.6 Modal Equation
2.4.7 Modes in Step-Index Fibers
2.4.8 Linearly Polarized Modes
2.4.9 Power Flow in Step-Index Fibers
2.5 Single-Mode Fibers
2.5.1 Mode Field Diameter
2.5.2 Propagation Modes in Single-Mode Fibers
2.6 Graded-Index Fiber Structure
2.7 Fiber Materials
2.7.1 Glass Fibers
2.7.2 Halide Glass Fibers
2.7.3 Active Glass Fibers
2.7.4 Chalgenide Glass Fibers
2.7.5 Plastic Optical Fibers
2.8 Fiber Fabrication
2.8.1 Outside Vapor Phase Oxidation
2.8.2 Vapor Phase Axial Deposition
2.8.3 Modified Chemical Vapor Depositionosition
2.8.5 Double-Crucible Method
2.9 Mechanical Properties of Fibers
2.10 Fiber Optic Cables
Problems
References

Chapter 3: Signal Degradation in Optical Fibers

3.1 Attenuation
3.1.1 Attenuation Units
3.1.2 Absorption
3.1.3 Scattering Losses
3.1.4 Bending Losses
3.1.5 Core and Cladding Losses
3.2 Signal Distortion in Optical Waveguides
3.2.1 Information Capacity Determination
3.2.2 Group Delay
3.2.3 Material Dispersion
3.2.4 Waveguide Dispersion
3.2.5 Signal Distortion in Single-Mode Fibers
3.2.6 Polarization-Mode Dispersion
3.2.7 Intermodal Distortion
3.3 Pulse Broadening in Graded-Index Waveguides
3.4 Mode Coupling
3.5 Design Optimization of Single-Mode Fibers
3.5.1 Refractive-Index Profiles
3.5.2 Cutoff Wavelength
3.5.3 Dispersion Calculations
3.5.4 Mode-Field Diameter
3.5.5 Bending Loss
Problems
References

Chapter 4: Optical Sources

4.1 Topics From Semiconductor Physics
4.1.1 Energy Bands
4.1.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Material
4.1.3 The pn Junctions
4.1.4 Direct and Indirect Bandgaps
4.1.5 Semiconductor Device Fabrication
4.2 Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
4.2.1 LED Structures
4.2.2 Light Source Materials
4.2.3 Quantum Efficiency and LED Power
4.2.4 Modulation of an LED
4.3 Laser Diodes
4.3.1 Laser Diode Modes and Threshold Conditions
4.3.2 Laser Diode Rate Equations
4.3.3 External Quantum Efficiency
4.3.4 Resonant Frequencies
4.3.5 Laser Diode Structures and Radiation Patterns
4.3.6 Single-Mode Lasers
4.3.7 Modulation of Laser Diodes
4.3.8 Temperature Effects
4.4 Light Source Linearity
4.5 Modal, Partition, and Reflection Noise
4.6 Reliability Considerations
Problems
References

Chapter 5: Power Launching and Coupling

5.1 Source-to-Fiber Power Launching
5.1.1 Source Output Pattern
5.1.2 Power-Coupling Calculation
5.1.3 Power Launching versus Wavelength
5.1.4 Equilibrium Numerical Aperture
5.2 Lensing Schemes for Coupling Improvement
5.2.1 Nonimaging Microsphere
5.2.2 Laser Diode-to-Fiber Coupling
5.3 Fiber-to-Fiber Joints
5.3.1 Mechanical Misalignment
5.3.2 Fiber-Related Losses
5.3.3 Fiber End Face Preparation
5.4 LED Coupling to Single-Mode Fibers
5.5 Fiber Splicing
5.5.1 Splicing Techniques
5.5.2 Splicing Single-Mode Fibers
5.6 Optical Fiber Connectors
5.6.1 Connector Types
5.6.2 Single-Mode Fiber Connectors
5.6.3 Connector Return Loss
Problems
References

Chapter 6: Photodetectors

6.1 Physical Principles of Photodiodes
6.1.1 The pin Photodetector
6.1.2 Avalanche Photodiodes
6.2 Photodetector Noise
6.2.1 Noise Sources
6.2.2 Signal-to-Noise Ratio
6.3 Detector Response Time
6.3.1 Depletion Layer Photocurrent
6.3.2 Response Time
6.4 Avalanche Multiplication Noise
6.5 Structures for InGaAs APDs
6.6 Temperature Effect on Avalanche Gain
6.7 Comparison of Photodetectors
Problems
References

Chapter 7: Optical Receiver Operation

7.1 Fundamental Receiver Operation
7.1.1 Digital Signal Transmission
7.1.2 Error sources
7.1.3 Receiver Configuration
7.1.4 Fourier Transform Representation
7.2 Digital Receiver Performance
7.2.1 Probability of Error
7.2.2 The Quantum Limit
7.3 Detailed Performance Calculation
7.3.1 Receiver Noises
7.3.2 Shot Noise
7.3.3 Receiver Sensitivity Calculation
7.3.4 Performance Curves
7.3.5 Nonzero Extinction ratio
7.4 Preamplifier Types
7.4.1 High-Impedance FET Amplifiers
7.4.2 High-Impedance Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers
7.4.3 Transimpedance Amplifier
7.4.4 High-Speed Circuits
7.5 Analog receivers
Problems
References

Chapter 8: Digital Transmission Systems

8.1 Point-to-Point Links
8.1.1 System Considerations
8.1.2 Link Power Budget
8.1.3 Rise-Time Budget
8.1.4 First-Window Transmission Distance
8.1.5 Transmission Distance for Single-Mode Links
8.2 Line Coding
8.2.1 NRZ Codes
8.2.2 RZ Codes
8.2.3 Block codes
8.3 Error Correction
8.4 Noise Effects on System Performance
8.4.1 Modal Noise
8.4.2 Mode Partition Noise
8.4.3 Chirping
8.4.4 Reflection Noise
Problems
References

Chapter 9: Analog Systems

9.1 Overview of Analog Links
9.2 Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
9.2.1 Carrier Power
9.2.2 Photodetector and Preamplifier Noises
9.2.3 Relative Intensity Noise (RIN)
9.2.4 Reflection Effects on RIN
9.2.5 Limiting Conditions
9.3 Multichannel Transmission Techniques
9.3.1 Multichannel Amplitude Modulation
9.3.2 Multichannel Frequency Modulation
9.3.3 Subcarrier Multiplexing
Problems
References

Chapter 10: WDM Concepts and Components

10.1 Operational Principles of WDM
10.2 Passive Components
10.2.1 The 2 X 2 Fiber Coupler
10.2.2 Scattering Matrix Representation
10.2.3 The 2 X 2 Waveguide Coupler
10.2.4 Star Couplers
10.2.5 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Multiplexers
10.2.6 Fiber Grating Filters
10.2.7 Phased-Array-Based WDM Devices
10.3 Tunable Sources
10.4 Tunable Filters
10.4.1 System Considerations
10.4.2 Tunable Filter Types
Problems
References

Chapter 11 - Optical Amplifiers

11.1 Basic Applications and Types of Optical Amplifiers
11.1.1 General Applications
11.1.2 Amplifier Types
11.2 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
11.2.1 External Pumping
11.2.2 Amplifier Gain
11.3 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers
11.3.1 Amplification Mechanism
11.3.2 EDFA Architecture
11.3.3 EDFA Power-Conversion Efficiency and Gain
11.4 Amplifier Noise
11.5 System Applications
11.5.1 Power Amplifiers
11.5.2 In-Line Amplifiers
11.5.3 Preamplifiers
11.5.4 Multichannel Operation
11.5.5 In-Line Amplifier Gain Control
11.6 Wavelength Converters
11.6.1 Optical Gating Wavelength Converters
11.6.2 Wave-Mixing Wavelength Converters
Problems
References

Chapter 12 - Optical Networks

12.1 Basic Networks
12.1.1 Network Topologies
12.1.2 Performance of Passive Linear Buses
12.1.3 Performance of Star Architectures
12.2 SONET/SDH
12.2.1 Transmission Formats and Speeds
12.2.2 Optical Interfaces
12.2.3 SONET/SDH Rings
12.2.4 SONET/SDH Networks
12.3 Broadcast-and-Select WDM Networks
12.3.1 Broadcast-and-Select Single-Hop Networks
12.3.2 Broadcast-and-Select Multihop Networks
12.3.3 The ShuffleNet Multihop Network
12.4 Wavelength-Routed Networks
12.4.1 Optical Cross Connects
12.4.2 Performance Evaluation of Wavelength Conversion
12.5 Nonlinear Effects on Network Performance
12.5.1 Effective Length and Area
12.5.2 Stimulated Raman Scattering
12.5.3 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
12.5.4 Self-Phase Modulation and Cross-Phase Modulation
12.5.5 Four-Wave Mixing
12.5.6 Dispersion Management
12.6 Performance of WDM+EDFA Systems
12.6.1 Link Bandwidth
12.6.2 Optical Power Requirements for a Specific BER
12.6.3 Interchannel Crosstalk
12.7 Solitons
12.7.1 Soliton Pulses
12.7.2 Soliton Parameters
12.7.3 Soliton Width and Spacing
12.8 Optical CDMA
12.9 Ultrahigh Capacity Networks
12.9.1 Ultrahigh Capacity WDM Systems
12.9.2 Bit-Interleaved Optical TDM
12.9.3 Time-Slotted Optical TDM
Problems
References

Chapter 13 - Measurements

13.1 Measurement Standards and Test Procedures
13.1.2 Test Equipment
13.2.1 Optical Power Meters
13.2.2 Optical Attenuators
13.2.3 Tunable Laser Sources
13.2.4 Optical Spectrum Analyzers
13.2.5 Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)
13.2.6 Multifunction Optical Test Systems
13.3 Attenuation Measurements
13.3.1 The Cut-Back Technique
13.3.2 Insertion-Loss Method
13.4 Dispersion Measurements
13.4.1 Intermodal Dispersion
13.4.2 Time-Domain Intermodal Dispersion Measurements
13.4.3 Frequency-Domain Intermodal Dispersion Measurements
13.4.4 Chromatic Dispersion
13.4.5 Polarization Mode Dispersion
13.5 OTDR Field Applications
13.5.1 OTDR Trace
13.5.2 Attenuation Measurements
13.5.3 Fiber Fault Location
13.6 Eye Patterns
13.7 Optical Spectrum Analyzer Applications
13.7.1 Characterization of Optical Sources
13.7.2 EDFA Gain and Noise-Figure Testing
Problems
References

Appendices

A. International System of Units
B. Useful Mathematical Relations
C. Bessel Functions
D. Decibels
E. Topics From Communication Theory

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