APA--Electronic Sources

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Section 10.4.4.6

Electronic sources

The format for documenting electronic sources of information, like the sources themselves, is stillbeing developed. The following forms are taken from the Publication Manual of theAPA, 4th ed. (1994), and recent standards proposed by T. Land (1996) to extend APA stylefor referencing online documents. In general, all electronic sources in APA style have five elements:author, date, title, document type, and publication information.

CD-ROMS and Other Portable Databases

Provide the author, date, and title information as you would for a print source. Identify the medium(such as CD-ROM), electronic tape, cartridge tape) in bracketsafter the title. At the end of the entry, include the location and name of the product.

Journal Abstract on CD-ROM


     Steinhausen, H. D., & Vollrath, M. (1993).

The self-image of adolescent patterns with

eating disorders [CD-ROM]. International

Journal of Eating Disorders, 13(2), 221-227.

Abstract from: Silverplatter File: PsycLIT

Item 80-33985.


Information Published Only on CD-ROM


     Solution Software. (1996). Material Safety

Datasheets [CD-ROM]. Enterprise, FL:

Author.


Computer Software


Corel Corporation, Ltd. (1996). Quattro Pro (Ver. 6.02 for Windows)

[Computer Software]. (1996). Dublin, Ireland:

Author.


Online Sources

For a source that is revised regularly, add, if available, the source's day and month of publication orthe day and month it was last modified as part of the date entry, and include in parentheses at the end of the citation the date you visited the sourcein the form (visited year, month, day). The publication information for any standardWorld Wide Web source is a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). The proposed, but not yetaccepted, APA style (Land, 1996) begins the publication element of all World Wide Web sites withthe capital letters "URL" followed by a space and the full URL path underlined. Do not end a URLwith a period or any other punctuation. Begin a URL on a new line rather than breaking it betweentwo lines.

Journal Published Only Online


     Harnack, A., & Kleppinger, G. (1996).

Beyond the MLA Handbook: Documenting

electronic sources on the Internet [On-line

serial]. Kairos, 1(2). URL

http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/1.2


Document Available through the World Wide Web


     Land, T. (1996, March 31). Web extension

to American Psychological Association style

(WEAPAS) [WWW Document] (Rev. 1.2.4). URL

http://www.nyu.edu/pages/psychology/WEAPAS/

(visited 1996, September 21).


Document Retrieved from a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Archive


     Curtis, P. (1992). Mudding: Social phenomena

in text-based virtual realities [FTP archive]. Available FTP:

Hostname: parcftp.xerox.com.pub/MOO/papers/DIAC92


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## APA: Electronic Sources ##
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