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Section 11.7.4

Conjunctive Adverbs

Conjunctive adverbs are adverbs that function as conjunctions when they link two independent clauses. Some common conjunctive adverbsare accordingly, also, anyway, besides, certainly, consequently, finally,furthermore, hence, however, incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, meanwhile,moreover, nevertheless, next, nonetheless, otherwise, similarly, still,subsequently, then, therefore, and thus.


By virtue of their prevalence alone, it is clear that mood disorders do notnecessarily breed genius; indeed, 1 percent of the generalpopulation suffer from manic-depression, also called bipolar disorder, and 5percent from a major depression, or unipolar disorder, during theirlifetime.

--Kay R. Jamison, "Manic-Depressive Illness and Creativity," ScientificAmerican


Each clause linked by a conjunctive adverb remains independent and can standalone; therefore, if the clauses are placed in a single sentence, they must beseparated by a semicolon.

Common positions for conjunctive adverbs in sentences are before the subject, between the subject and the first verb, and at the end of the sentence. Conjunctive adverbsat the beginning of a clause must be followed by a comma (and preceded by a semicolon if the clause islinked to the previous clause).


The lithium ion battery lasts longer than the NiCad battery;therefore, one lithium ion battery may suffice.

Conjunctive adverbs between the subject and the verb must be both preceded andfollowed by a comma.


The lithium ion battery lasts longer than the NiCad batter; one lithium ionbattery, therefore, may suffice.

Conjunctive adverbs at the end of a clause must be preceded by a comma andfollowed by a period.


The lithium ion battery lasts longer than the NiCad battery; one lithiumion battery may suffice, therefore.

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