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Section 10

Citing Sources and Listing References

Whenever you include another person's information or wording in a document, you mustacknowledge the source and include a citation that will tell the reader where you obtained it. If youdo not do so, you deprive your reader of the ability to locate information that he or she might wantto explore further. In addition, you may be committing intellectual theft, plagiarism.

Mechanisms that allow a reader to verify the information presented in a document are essential partsof most types of technical and scientific writing. Proceduressections of technical and laboratory reports, for example,provide the reader with information sufficient to replicate both the method and the data describedin the document.

There are two basic and universal rules regarding the use of information in professional and,especially, academic writing:

  1. If you use the language of your source, you must quote it exactly, enclose it in quotation marks, and cite the source.
  2. If you use ideas or information that are not common knowledge, you must cite the source.

Using the Language of Your Source Appropriately

Acknowledging Sources

Basic Structure and Formats of Citation Styles

American Psychological Association (APA) Author-Date Style

Modern Language Association (MLA) Author-Page Style

Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) Note Citations

Council of Biology Editors (CBE) Citation-Sequence System

IEEE Citation Sequence System

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## Citing Sources/Listing References ##
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