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Section 1.6

Forecasting

See also Coherence.

Present the whole before the parts. One of the common problems in reading science andengineering materials is that of trying to understand the context of the discussion. Give your readera general view of where you are going before you plunge into the details. This principle applies tothe introductions of documents, as well as to the openings ofdocument sections.


Weak

3.2 Results

Friction between specimens first induces a moment about the loading hole that can lead to adifferent stress state at the crack tip. It also delays the Hertzian indentation energy flow from theloading point to the crack tip. The extent of the delay may depend on the contact surface conditionsbetween the specimen and back-up plate, which would contribute toKIa scatter. [In this example, the section opening is notlinked to what has been said, and it also moves into an account of the results that gives no context.]

Improved

3.2 Results of the BLM Program on Crack Arrest Testing

The results of the BLM Crack Arrest Testing Program show a significant scatter in theKIa values. Friction effects described in the last section may play animportant role in producing this larger scatter. The friction between specimens influences twoaspects of their behavior. First, it induces a moment about the loading hole that can lead to adifferent stress state at the crack tip. Second, it delays the Hertzian indentation energy flow fromthe loading point to the crack tip. The extent of the delay may depend on the contact surfaceconditions between the specimen and back-up plate, which would contribute toKIa scatter. [The forecasting in the improved example isdeveloped in several ways, including descriptive headings, a cleartopic sentence, introductory sentences giving context andbackground, and transitional words.]

--G. D. Whitman and R. H. Ryan, "Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program: QuarterlyProgress Report," Oak Ridge National Laboratory.


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## Forecasting ##
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