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Section 5.3.8

Classification and Division

Use classification and division to develop material by relating partsto wholes. In classification, you associate similar things or processes by grouping them into classes. You can classify organisms, mechanisms, processes according to shapes, magnitudes, effects, and so on. In division, you develop a topic by breaking it down into smaller parts. Classification is the tutorialprose strategy. It is an effective approach for showing the terrain of a subject by elaborating uponits essential types. In the following example, corrosion-resistant ceramics are broken down intotypes.

Acid Service: Choice of Materials

Careful design and selection of corrosion-resistant ceramics by process engineers and designers isnecessary for long-lasting, reliable, and cost-effective ceramic linings for process equipment. Thefollowing types of ceramics are used for acid service.

Red shale acid brick. These bricks are manufactured from iron-bearing sedimentaryclays prepared with low-melting additives. The clay mixture is extruded through a die and then wire-cut into individual bricks. The units are fired to form a bond of melted material between the clayparticles. . . . 

Stoneware and porcelain. A vitreous or semi-vitreous ceramic ware, stoneware is madewith a fine texture, low-melting-point fireclay. The uniform, chemically resistant microstructure ofa stoneware part offers chemical resistance throughout its service lifetime. Stoneware is used indistributors, packing supports, and . . . 

Glazed ceramic tile. Industrial glazed ceramic tile units are made of fireclays with aniron oxide content of less than 2%. The clays are processed and then extruded into various shapes. The shaped parts are coated on the process side before firing with a glass-forming glaze solution. Then the tile is fired, the clay body . . . 

--Adapted from K. Brooks and M. W. Martin, "Ceramics Stand Up to Acid Service,"Chemical Engineering

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