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Section 5.3.3


Use process in paragraphs to develop sequences that describe how an action is carried out orhow something works. The following paragraph shows a typical sequential treatment of a generalphysical phenomenon. Note the concentration of process verbssuch as to find, samples, sums, andprovides.

Ideally, an image should contain a region of high-intensity pixels that form the target,and a low-intensity background. To find the target region, the algorithm first samples the imagesin overlapping windows and sums the pixel intensities contained in each window. The windowwith the highest sum is assumed to contain the target, and the average of the remaining windowsis assumed to be indicative of the background level. Thus, subtracting the average of the windowsums from the highest window sum provides a measure of the target strength over thebackground noise level. If an image does not contain a target, then the different between thehighest sum and the average sum will be very small. The difference will also be small for imagescontaining faint targets and high levels of background noise.

--M. Menon, E. Boudreau, and P. J. Kolodzy, "An Automatic Ship Classification System forISAR Imagery," Lincoln Laboratory Journal

A more rigid process description, filled with technicalterminology, may become experimental protocol, as follows:

Isolation of RNA

The homogenate was extracted twice at 4°C with buffer-equilibrated phenol; the firstextraction was 1 hr. long and the second, 15 min. Two volumes of ethanol:m-cresol (9:1, byvolume), added to the aqueous phase, precipitated total RNA overnight at 4°. The RNAprecipitate was collected by centrifugation, washed successively with 70% and 95% ethanol, anddried over CaSO4 under vacuum. The RNA was dissolved in 0.015 MNaCl:0.0015 M sodium citrate, pH 7.0, and the absorbance at 260 nm wasdetermined . . . 

--C. M. King et al., "Comparative Adduct Formation of 4-aminobipheynl," CancerResearch

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